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Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays: Best Practices and Standards from ICAO Aerodrome Design Manual Part 2


- Overview: What are the main topics covered in the document? H2: Taxiway Design - Taxiway Layout: How to plan and design taxiways for different types of aircraft and operations? - Taxiway Physical Characteristics: What are the dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs for taxiways? - Taxiway Shoulder and Strip: What are the functions and requirements for taxiway shoulder and strip? H2: Apron Design - Apron Layout: How to plan and design aprons for different types of aircraft and operations? - Apron Physical Characteristics: What are the dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs for aprons? - Apron Safety and Security: What are the measures to prevent accidents and incidents on aprons? H2: Holding Bay Design - Holding Bay Layout: How to plan and design holding bays for different types of aircraft and operations? - Holding Bay Physical Characteristics: What are the dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs for holding bays? - Holding Bay Operational Considerations: What are the factors to consider when using holding bays for traffic management and noise abatement? H1: Conclusion - Summary: What are the main points and benefits of following the document? - Recommendations: What are some best practices and tips for aerodrome design? H1: FAQs - Q1: What is the difference between a taxiway and a runway? - Q2: What is the difference between an apron and a parking area? - Q3: What is the difference between a holding bay and a runway end safety area? - Q4: How can I access Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 online? - Q5: How often is Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 updated? Table 2: Article with HTML formatting What is Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2?




If you are involved in planning, designing or operating an aerodrome, you may have heard of Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2. But what exactly is this document and why is it important?




Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2



In this article, we will explain the purpose and scope of Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2, which covers the design of taxiways, aprons and holding bays. We will also give you an overview of the main topics covered in the document, such as taxiway layout, apron safety and holding bay operational considerations.


By reading this article, you will gain a better understanding of Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 and how it can help you improve your aerodrome design and operation.


Taxiway Design




Taxiways are defined as "the parts of an aerodrome intended to be used for the surface movement of aircraft between runways or between runways and other parts of an aerodrome" . Taxiways are essential for ensuring safe and efficient movement of aircraft on the ground.


Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides guidance on how to plan and design taxiways for different types of aircraft and operations. It also specifies the physical characteristics of taxiways, such as dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs. In addition, it covers the functions and requirements of taxiway shoulder and strip.


Taxiway Layout




The layout of taxiways depends on various factors, such as the size and configuration of runways, the types and numbers of aircraft using the aerodrome, the traffic flow patterns, the meteorological conditions, the terrain features, the environmental constraints and the operational requirements .


Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides some general principles and examples for taxiway layout, such as:


  • The taxiway system should be simple, clear and logical, minimizing the number and length of taxiways and the potential for runway incursions.



  • The taxiway system should be flexible, allowing for different operational scenarios and future expansion.



  • The taxiway system should be compatible with the runway system, ensuring adequate separation distances and clearances between taxiways and runways.



  • The taxiway system should be designed to accommodate the largest aircraft expected to use the aerodrome, taking into account their wingspan, wheelbase, turning radius and jet blast effects.



  • The taxiway system should be designed to minimize the risk of foreign object damage (FOD), bird strike, wake turbulence and engine ingestion.



Taxiway Physical Characteristics




The physical characteristics of taxiways include their dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs. These characteristics affect the safety and efficiency of taxiing operations and should be designed according to the standards and recommendations of Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2.


Some of the main aspects of taxiway physical characteristics are:


  • The width of a taxiway depends on the code letter of the aircraft using it, which is based on their wingspan. The minimum width ranges from 7.5 m for code letter A aircraft (wingspan up to 15 m) to 25 m for code letter F aircraft (wingspan up to 80 m) .



  • The slope of a taxiway should not exceed 1.5% in any direction, except for short sections where it may be up to 3% . The slope should also be uniform and gradual, avoiding abrupt changes that may cause discomfort or damage to aircraft.



  • The markings on a taxiway indicate the centerline, the edge, the holding position, the designation and the direction of the taxiway. The markings should be yellow and visible in all weather conditions .



  • The lighting on a taxiway provides guidance and information to pilots during night or low visibility operations. The lighting includes centerline lights, edge lights, stop bars, runway guard lights and taxiway direction signs .



  • The signs on a taxiway provide information on the location, designation and direction of the taxiway. The signs should be blue with yellow letters and numbers and located at appropriate positions along the taxiway .



Taxiway Shoulder and Strip




The taxiway shoulder is defined as "the area adjacent to the edge of the pavement prepared or suitable for reducing blast erosion, for supporting an aircraft running off a pavement or for accommodating an aircraft with one or more engines inoperative" . The taxiway strip is defined as "the area including the taxiway and the shoulder" .


The functions and requirements of the taxiway shoulder and strip are:


  • To provide a stable surface for aircraft that may deviate from the paved area due to emergency or operational reasons.



  • To prevent erosion of the pavement edge due to jet blast or propeller wash.



  • To prevent accumulation of debris or water that may cause FOD or hydroplaning.



  • To provide adequate clearance from obstacles or other aircraft that may interfere with taxiing operations.



  • To provide a suitable area for installing lighting or signs that may be required for navigation or safety purposes.



Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 specifies the minimum width and strength of the taxiway shoulder and strip, depending on the code letter of the aircraft using it. The minimum width ranges from 2.5 m for code letter A aircraft to 7.5 m for code letter F aircraft . The minimum strength should be sufficient to support an aircraft with one or more engines inoperative without causing structural damage .


Apron Design




Aprons are defined as "the parts of an aerodrome intended to accommodate the loading and unloading of passengers and cargo, the refueling, servicing, maintenance and parking of aircraft, and to enable passengers to board and disembark from aircraft" . Aprons are important for ensuring safe and efficient operations of aircraft on the ground.


Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides guidance on how to plan and design aprons for different types of aircraft and operations. It also specifies the physical characteristics of aprons, such as dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs. In addition, it covers the safety and security measures to prevent accidents and incidents on aprons.


Apron Layout




The layout of aprons depends on various factors, such as the size and configuration of runways, the types and numbers of aircraft using the aerodrome, the traffic flow patterns, the meteorological conditions, the terrain features, the environmental constraints and the operational requirements .


Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides some general principles and examples for apron layout, such as:


  • The apron system should be simple, clear and logical, minimizing the number and length of taxi routes and the potential for conflicts between aircraft and vehicles.



  • The apron system should be flexible, allowing for different operational scenarios and future expansion.



  • The apron system should be compatible with the runway and taxiway systems, ensuring adequate separation distances and clearances between aprons and runways or taxiways.



  • The apron system should be designed to accommodate the largest aircraft expected to use the aerodrome, taking into account their wingspan, wheelbase, turning radius and jet blast effects.



  • The apron system should be designed to minimize the risk of foreign object damage (FOD), bird strike, wake turbulence and engine ingestion.



Apron Physical Characteristics




The physical characteristics of aprons include their dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs. These characteristics affect the safety and efficiency of apron operations and should be designed according to the standards and recommendations of Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2.


Some of the main aspects of apron physical characteristics are:


  • The width of an apron depends on the code letter of the aircraft using it, which is based on their wingspan. The minimum width ranges from 15 m for code letter A aircraft (wingspan up to 15 m) to 80 m for code letter F aircraft (wingspan up to 80 m) .



  • The slope of an apron should not exceed 1% in any direction, except for short sections where it may be up to 2% . The slope should also be uniform and gradual, avoiding abrupt changes that may cause discomfort or damage to aircraft.



  • The markings on an apron indicate the parking positions, the taxi lanes, the service roads, the safety zones and the designation of the apron. The markings should be white or yellow and visible in all weather conditions .



  • The lighting on an apron provides illumination and information to pilots and ground personnel during night or low visibility operations. The lighting includes floodlights, stand guidance systems, stop bars, runway guard lights and apron direction signs .



  • The signs on an apron provide information on the location, designation and direction of the apron. The signs should be blue with yellow letters and numbers and located at appropriate positions along the apron .



Apron Safety and Security




The safety and security of aprons are essential for preventing accidents and incidents that may cause injury or damage to people or property. Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides some general guidelines and recommendations for enhancing apron safety and security, such as:


  • Establishing a clear division of responsibilities between aerodrome operators, air traffic controllers, airlines, ground handlers and other service providers.



  • Implementing a comprehensive safety management system (SMS) that identifies hazards, assesses risks and implements mitigation measures.



  • Providing adequate training and supervision for all personnel involved in apron operations.



  • Enforcing rules and regulations for the use of aprons, such as speed limits, parking procedures, vehicle access and movement, fueling and servicing operations, etc.



  • Installing and maintaining appropriate equipment and facilities for fire protection, emergency response, surveillance and communication.



Holding Bay Design




Holding bays are defined as "the parts of an aerodrome intended to be used for enabling aircraft to wait for permission to take off" . Holding bays are useful for managing traffic flow and reducing noise impact on the ground.


Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides guidance on how to plan and design holding bays for different types of aircraft and operations. It also specifies the physical characteristics of holding bays, such as dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs. In addition, it covers the operational considerations for using holding bays for traffic management and noise abatement.


Holding Bay Layout




The layout of holding bays depends on various factors, such as the size and configuration of runways, the types and numbers of aircraft using the aerodrome, the traffic flow patterns, the meteorological conditions, the terrain features, the environmental constraints and the operational requirements .


Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides some general principles and examples for holding bay layout, such as:


  • The holding bay system should be simple, clear and logical, minimizing the number and length of taxi routes and the potential for conflicts between aircraft and vehicles.



  • The holding bay system should be flexible, allowing for different operational scenarios and future expansion.



  • The holding bay system should be compatible with the runway and taxiway systems, ensuring adequate separation distances and clearances between holding bays and runways or taxiways.



  • The holding bay system should be designed to accommodate the largest aircraft expected to use the aerodrome, taking into account their wingspan, wheelbase, turning radius and jet blast effects.



  • The holding bay system should be designed to minimize the risk of foreign object damage (FOD), bird strike, wake turbulence and engine ingestion.



Holding Bay Physical Characteristics




The physical characteristics of holding bays include their dimensions, slopes, markings, lighting and signs. These characteristics affect the safety and efficiency of holding operations and should be designed according to the standards and recommendations of Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2.


Some of the main aspects of holding bay physical characteristics are:


  • The width of a holding bay depends on the code letter of the aircraft using it, which is based on their wingspan. The minimum width ranges from 15 m for code letter A aircraft (wingspan up to 15 m) to 80 m for code letter F aircraft (wingspan up to 80 m) .



  • The slope of a holding bay should not exceed 1% in any direction, except for short sections where it may be up to 2% . The slope should also be uniform and gradual, avoiding abrupt changes that may cause discomfort or damage to aircraft.



  • The markings on a holding bay indicate the centerline, the edge, the holding position and the designation of the holding bay. The markings should be yellow and visible in all weather conditions .



  • The lighting on a holding bay provides guidance and information to pilots during night or low visibility operations. The lighting includes centerline lights, edge lights, stop bars and runway guard lights .



  • The signs on a holding bay provide information on the location, designation and direction of the holding bay. The signs should be blue with yellow letters and numbers and located at appropriate positions along the holding bay .



Holding Bay Operational Considerations




The operational considerations for using holding bays include traffic management and noise abatement. Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 provides some general guidelines and recommendations for these aspects, such as:


  • Traffic management: Holding bays can be used to optimize runway capacity by reducing runway occupancy time and allowing simultaneous take-offs from different runways. They can also be used to reduce taxiing time and fuel consumption by allowing aircraft to wait closer to the runway. However, they should not be used excessively or unnecessarily as they may increase congestion or delay on taxiways or aprons.



  • Noise abatement: Holding bays can be used to reduce noise impact on nearby communities by allowing aircraft to perform engine run-ups or tests away from sensitive areas. They can also be used to implement noise preferential routes or procedures by directing aircraft to take off from specific runways or directions. However, they should not be used in a way that compromises safety or efficiency of operations.



Conclusion




In this article, we have explained what is Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 and why it is important for planning, designing and operating an aerodrome. We have also given you an overview of the main topics covered in the document, such as taxiway design, apron design and holding bay design.


By following Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2, you can improve your aerodrome design and operation and ensure safe and efficient movement of aircraft on the ground. You can also enhance your aerodrome capacity and flexibility and reduce your environmental impact and operational costs.


Here are some recommendations and best practices for aerodrome design based on Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2:


  • Conduct a comprehensive analysis of your aerodrome needs and constraints before designing or modifying your taxiway, apron or holding bay system.



  • Consult with all relevant stakeholders, such as air traffic controllers, airlines, ground handlers, regulators and local authorities, during the planning and design process.



  • Use the latest technology and equipment to improve your taxiway, apron or holding bay layout, physical characteristics, safety and security.



  • Monitor and evaluate your taxiway, apron or holding bay performance and identify areas for improvement or expansion.



  • Keep yourself updated with the latest standards and recommendations of Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 and other related documents.



FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2:


Q1: What is the difference between a taxiway and a runway?




A: A taxiway is a part of an aerodrome intended to be used for the surface movement of aircraft between runways or between runways and other parts of an aerodrome. A runway is a part of an aerodrome intended to be used for the take-off and landing of aircraft .


Q2: What is the difference between an apron and a parking area?




A: An apron is a part of an aerodrome intended to accommodate the loading and unloading of passengers and cargo, the refueling, servicing, maintenance and parking of aircraft, and to enable passengers to board and disembark from aircraft. A parking area is a part of an apron intended to accommodate the parking of aircraft .


Q3: What is the difference between a holding bay and a runway end safety area?




A: A holding bay is a part of an aerodrome intended to be used for enabling aircraft to wait for permission to take off. A runway end safety area is a part of an aerodrome intended to be used for reducing the risk of damage to an aircraft undershooting or overrunning the runway .


Q4: How can I access Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 online?




A: You can access Aerodrome Design Manual Doc 9157 Part 2 online through the ICAO Store website . You can also access other related documents, such as Annex 14 - Aerodromes Volume I - Aerodrome Design and Operations .


Q5: How often is Aerodrome Design Manu


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